The formation of modern European nations in the early 19th century brought with it the need to forge a new relationship with the past. The young Czech nation, defined by a common language, saw in the past a justification for its own existence. Reassurance in historicism gave rise to a number of stereotypes and myths that continue to survive. A myth appears to be an authentic image of seemingly well-known and tried-and-true values. Faith in it solidifies a community’s sense of unity and emphasizes its difference from others. To what extent do these ideas now predetermine how we think about ourselves and the world around us? Are the images and interpretations constructed two hundred years ago in a context completely different from that of the present supposed to relate to our identity today? We need to understand why the myth originated, what it contains and how it was transmitted. This will make it easier for us to understand whether we are held captive by it or not.