Others

The modern artist has focused with increasing intensity on the realm of the human soul. He looks for the exclusive in humankind, and notices how one who is uniquely disposed shapes his own world by the way he perceives it. More often than not, he finds the ideal object in himself: he asks what can be read from his face and looks for new ways to speak about his soul, whether faithfully or fictitiously.

Either directly or indirectly, modern artists respond in their work to the ground-breaking social and cultural transformations of the world and to the most diverse intellectual stimuli. They understand that orthodox approaches overlook the fundamental in life and that acquired means of expression are insufficient for the coming experience. They strive for a new art. Some of them connect it with the inner, dreamy or fantastical, and distinguish it from everyday reality, while others attempt to capture the present moment. Nevertheless, they all increasingly apply their subjective vision and focus it, inter alia, on themselves. They more often analyse their own feelings or pay heed to their own experiences, while forever emphasising the uniqueness of their status, their otherness. Lyric poetry thrives in literature, self-portraits and portraits increasingly feature in the visual arts, and the artist’s life is displayed as part of his or her work, protecting the inwardness of their art.

 

 

Portrait of the artist

“Artists alone […] reveal everyone’s secret bad conscience, the law that every man is a unique miracle; they dare to show us man as he is, to himself unique in each movement of his muscles [...].”
Friedrich Nietzsche, 1874

In addition to the work, the modern artist is represented by his face. This invites artists to attempt to capture its unique features and illustrate how the creative calling is imprinted in its appearance. And thus in portraits, his artistry is not only signalled by the tools of the trade (e.g. pen, brush, palette or musical instrument), but also, perhaps above all, by his physiognomy. This speaks of his sensitivity, determination and mutability in terms of his ability to understand and transform himself into the other, and even of his will to recreate the world in his own work.

 

 

Portrait photography

“[...] I consider the body to be entirely secondary, merely accidental, something for which a person is not responsible and over which he has no influence [...].”
Jiří Karásek ze Lvovic, 1927

While portraits depict the subject as artist, they also stylise him or attempt to penetrate to the interior. In contrast, the face captured in a photograph is mainly that of his civilian persona. It presents the often hazy boundary between the private and public, between the civic and artistic self-presentation, i.e. the line that has to be crossed when deciding whether to publish an artist’s journal or correspondence. In other words, a photograph both reveals and dissimulates, and if, along with its subject, it includes a glimpse of his surroundings or friends, it suggests that not only he, but his world, is Janus-faced.

 

 

The Records

“The manuscript is the embodiment of the idea, as it is made known by the hand, this glowing, childish servant of life. […] The true poet wishes to see the appearance of his thought, which the handwriting reveals.”
André Suarès

A written or drawn work is able, through the uniqueness of its strokes, to create the impression that it is completely imbued with the writer’s personality, and that it bears witness to him. Fin-de-siècle artists often preferred handwriting to the printed text and the sketch to the finished image. While non-individualised typography seems uniform and impersonal, the manuscript, especially if calligraphic as used by many modernists, speaks directly to the reader. The drawing or sketch also absorbs the primary artistic impulse, testifies to the creator’s vision, and even their vivid strokes seem to reflect the artist’s inner world.

 

 

Body language

“I am an image, Chiaro, of thine own soul within thee. See me, and know me as I am.”
D. G. Rossetti, 1849

Artists grow bolder when drawing on the taboo areas of sexuality, disease and death. At the same time they are drawn to and unsettled by the transcendent. They polarise the body and spirit even though they deem them inseparable. They confront this fact as a personal dilemma and deal more often in their works with the relationship between the physical and the inner life, a theme they now reconceptualise in diverse ways. For example, they attribute to certain bodily organs the ability to testify as to personality or soul: we may learn many things from a hand or eye seen as a mechanism associated with creativity, or hair as emitting a “magic” fluid. The entire physical construction, including gesture, speaks to us.

 

Lands of the soul

“Every landscape is, as it were, a state of the soul, and whoever penetrates into both is astonished to find how much likeness there is in each detail.”
Henri Frédéric Amiel, 1852

The symbolists also project mental states into the environment they portray. Landscape painting is especially important in this respect. The way it depicts the landscape speaks volumes about the artist, his attention, perception and sensitivity. At the same time, however, the scene can also “materialise” the soul: the mental (psychological) landscape does not resemble a real location, but forms a
distinctive space corresponding to the artist’s mood, or, as the famous quote by enri-Frédéric Amiel suggests, depicting the soul of nature. In poetry, too, images of a landscape are often associated with the motif of the soul, and these metaphors demonstrate the vastness and depth of the inner life of a human being.

 

The Books

“We write in order to clarify our vision. We print books in order to summon related beings from afar. If we achieve such strength of word that we can express ourselves simply, they will come.”
Otokar Březina, 1909

Modernists emphasise the significance of language. Aware of the fact that humans understand the world and themselves through words, they warn against the loss of their ability to name faithfully. There is a danger that the world will be struck dumb, that it will be deafened by meaningless verbosity and that the lie will not be distinguishable from the truth. They appreciate the book as an independent work of art, integrating verbal and artistic qualities. It thus represents the culmination of literary self-expression that everyone strives for and for which new genres emerge, especially the essay. Books also preserve testimonies and pick their way through a multiplicity of voices: in addition to memoires, documents are published and literary history evolves.

The faces of Karel Hlaváček

“The song emanates with tenderness, its gold fades – and there is nothing sadder than the sadness of these two eyes, the eyes of an enchanted poet.”
Karel Hlaváček, 1898

Karel Hlaváček takes as his central theme the modern subject. He examines it primarily as it relates to himself, his own experiences and dreams, and experiments with self-portrait and portrait in which he simultaneously evokes a tension between reality and fiction. His popularity among later generations
confirms the longevity of his legacy and sheds light on the link between the modernism of the 1890s and subsequent trends in art. In part due to Hlaváček’s contribution the world of modern art blossoms as an independent domain of transformation and stylisation, in which the artist does battle with him or herself and transcends conventions, and the viewer learns to look anew.

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